Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of at least 113 naturally occurring chemical constituents found in the cannabis plant. Unlike tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the most abundant component in cannabis, CBD does induce a psychoactive effect, or “high,” and has been used medicinally for decades.
Acting upon the body’s cannabinoid receptors, the application or consumption of CBD may provide pain relief or reduce inflammation.
A new wave of interest into the health benefits of CBD, from both the medical community and the public at large, has spurred an acceleration in the rate and breadth of research.
Cannabinoids are a class of active and diverse chemical compounds that bind to cannabinoid receptors in cells and alter neurotransmitter releases in the brain. There are at least 113 different cannabinoids isolated from the cannabis plant. The most notable are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis, and cannabidiol (CBD), which can account for up to 40 percent of extracts.
Cannabis is a tall herb in the hemp family that produces three species of flowing plants: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. Indigenous to Central Asia, cannabis can grow almost anywhere and is cultivated throughout the world. Cannabis has been used as a source for textile fiber, food, oil and medicine since the dawn of humanity Flower buds and leaves are often harvested and dried for their psychoactive properties.
Cannabis sativa L. is the scientific name for the cannabis plant. Cannabis sativa is an annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to Central Asia. The plant has been cultivated throughout recorded history as an industrial fiber. It has also been used as a food source and incorporated into religious, spiritual and medical practices.
Edibles are food products that have been infused with cannabis extracts, such as CBD, and can range in form from bread to coffee to candy.
CBD products refer to any and all products that fall into the following categories: Hemp-derived CBD, marijuana-derived CBD-only, or CBD-dominant.
Tinctures are made by absorbing cannabinoids, such as CBD, into a solvent – such as alcohol or glycerol – then straining out the plant matter. Oil is used to dilute the extract and improve the taste. Droppers or spray bottles can be used to orally ingest CBD tinctures. Tinctures tend to produce faster results than traditional edibles.
Lotions, creams and other topical rubs are typically made by mixing a CBD extract with coconut oil or beeswax. The mixture allows the recipe to be easily applied and penetrate the skin. CBD rubs and balms are useful for fighting aches, pains, inflammation and other ailments.
CBD users refer to any respondent who uses one or more of the following three types of products: Hemp-derived CBD, marijuana-derived CBD-only, or CBD dominant.
CBD-dominant products refer to CBD in combination with other compounds extracted from the marijuana plant. Generally, CBD-dominant products have varying concentrations of CBD, and a lesser amount of THC. These products typically declare a ratio of CBD:THC, such as 5:1, meaning it contains 5x as much CBD as it does THC. For the purposes of this study, CBD-dominant products are considered to be those with CBD:THC ratios of 1:1 or higher.
CBD can be derived from hemp or marijuana, although on a molecular level all CBD-only products are identical, containing negligible amounts of THC. Though we distinguish between hemp-derived and marijuana-derived CBD-only products throughout the study, the only meaningful difference between them is the terpene profile that accompanies the two plants.
A dispensary is a store that legally carries and sells cannabis products. Exactly which products are carried varies states to state, based on applicable laws.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system involved in regulating a variety of physiological and cognitive processes. The ECS is composed of endocannabinoids, molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors and cannabinoid receptor proteins found throughout the mammalian central nervous system and peripheral system.
The entourage effect is a theory that posits that any cannabinoid is more effective when combined with companion cannabinoids from the same plant. For instance, CBD works best when used in conjunction with THC (and other cannabinoids).
Hemp is a fibrous material produced from the male cannabis plant. The hemp material can be used, and has been used throughout history, to create paper, rope, clothing and other products.
The term terpene refers to any of a large group of aromatic organic compounds, specifically isomeric hydrocarbons, identifiable by the formula C10H16, responsible for the scent given off by plants.
Fragrances given off by peppermint and lemongrass, for example, can be traced back to the terpenes limonene and myrcene. Linalool, a terpene found in lavender, tends to have a calming effect.
More than 200 types of terpenes have been identified so far. A small number of them are believed to have useful therapeutic properties.
A growing number of companies in the cannabis space are mixing and matching various terpenes to appeal to the interests and tastes of customers.
THC-dominant refers to products dominant in THC and containing varying concentrations of other compounds, such as CBD.